Testing of Arg-8-gonadotropin-releasing hormone-directed antisera by immunological and immunocytochemical methods for use in comparative studies
Three polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against the mammalian molecular form of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for crossreactivity with naturally occurring GnRHs and with GnRH analogues. Antisera were then tested immunocytochemically in order (i) to identify amino acids essential for the binding of each antiserum, and (ii) to evaluate the specificity of the immunocytochemical reaction in brain sections from various species of cyclostomes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Antiserum GnRH 80/1, recognizing mainly a discontinuous determinant including the NH2- and COOH-termini, crossreacts with GnRHs the molecular bending of which enables the spatial approach of both terminal amino acid residues. Antiserum GnRH 80/2, by requiring the COOH-terminus for binding and not tolerating substitutions by aromatic amino acids in the middle region of the molecule, recognizes chicken I GnRH, however, not the salmon form. The use of this antiserum is appropriate in species synthesizing the mammalian and/or the chicken I form of GnRH. GnRH antiserum 81/1 is specific mostly for mammalian GnRH. The results obtained by ELISAs are confirmed by immunocytochemical studies. A comparison between the results obtained in ELISA and in immunocytochemistry involving mammalian-, chicken I-, chicken II-, salmon-, and lamprey-directed GnRH antisera resulted in the following conclusions: (1) An antiserum recognizing the discontinuous antigen determinant including both NH2- and COOH-termini may be reactive in most vertebrate brain sections thus being appropriate for phylogenetically directed immunocytochemical studies. (2) Moreover, this discontinuous determinant seems to be immunocytochemically reactive in all parts of the neurons in the GnRH system, whereas, in some species, determinants located in the middle region of the molecule(s) tend to become reactive only during the axonal transport. (3) A crossreaction between tissue-bound antigen and antibodies recognizing the above cited discontinuous determinant indicates an appropriate bending of the molecule even in case of severe molecular differences, e.g., in lamprey form of GnRH. (4) It follows that in phylogenetic studies, an immunologically well characterized antiserum can be substituted for a species-directed antiserum.
Amphibia ; Animal ; Birds ; Comparative Study ; Cross Reactions: genetics ; Epitopes: immunology ; Fishes ; Hormones,Synthetic: immunology ; Immune Sera: analysis: biosynthesis: immunology ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mammals: immunology ; Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: analysis: genetics: immunology ; Reptiles ; Species Specificity ; Support,Non-U.S.Gov't ; Vertebrates: immunology ; 45970 ;