Publication date: November 2019
Source: Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 216
Author(s): Marissa Giroux, Sara M.F. Vliet, David C. Volz, Jay Gan, Daniel SchlenkAbstract
Many coastal systems have been experiencing the effects of non-chemical and chemical anthropological stressors through respective increases in surface water temperatures and rainstorm-derived runoff events of pyrethroid pesticide movement into waterways such as the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Salmonid populations in the Bay-Delta have been dramatically declining in recent decades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of bifenthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and increasing water temperatures on targeted neuroendocrine and behavioral responses in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr (10- month post-hatch). Parr were reared at 11 °C, 16.4 °C, or 19 °C for 14 days and, in the final 96 h of rearing, exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.15, or 1.5 μg/L bifenthrin. A predatory avoidance Y-Maze behavioral assay was conducted immediately following exposures. Parr were presented a choice of clean or odorant zones, and locomotive behavior was recorded. Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), estradiol, and testosterone were quantified within plasma using ELISAs, and the expression of brain hormone and dopamine receptor genes were also evaluated by qPCR. Brain dopamine levels were analyzed by LC/MS. No significant changes were observed in brain transcripts or plasma hormone concentrations with bifenthrin or increasing temperature. However, temperature did significantly lower brain dopamine levels in fish reared at 19 °C compared to 11 °C controls, but was unaltered by bifenthrin treatment. In contrast, parr reared at 11 °C and exposed to 1.5 μg/L bifenthrin spent significantly less time avoiding a predatory odorant compared to vehicle controls reared at 11 °C. The 16.4 °C and 1.5 μg/L-treated fish spent significantly more time in the neutral arm compared to the odorant and clean arms, as well as spending significantly less time in the clean arm compared to the 11 °C control fish. These results suggest that the interaction of temperature and bifenthrin may be adversely impacting predator-avoidance behavior, which may not be related to dopaminergic responses.