Aquatic Toxicology

Melamine and curcumin enriched diets modulate the haemato-immune response, growth performance, oxidative stress, disease resistance, and cytokine production in oreochromis niloticus

Publication date: March 2020

Source: Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 220

Author(s): Yasmina M. Abd El-Hakim, Walaa El-Houseiny, Abd Elhakeem EL-Murr, Lamiaa L.M. Ebraheim, Amr A. Moustafa, Amany Abdel Rahman Mohamed


Currently, feed adulteration and contamination with melamine (MEL) are considered one of the serious issues in the aquatic industry. With the limited studies of MEL exposure alone in fish, its adverse impacts on fish cannot be evaluated well. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the effects of MEL containing diets on the immune response, disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila, growth performance, chemical composition, immune-related genes expression, and histopathology of both spleen and head kidneys. Also, the efficacy of curcumin (CUR) dietary supplementation to alleviate MEL negative impacts were evaluated. A total of 180 apparently healthy Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) were divided into four groups with three replicates fed the basal diet only, basal diet fortified with 200 mg/kg CUR, basal diet containing 1 % MEL, or a basal diet containing CUR + MEL. The results displayed that MEL significantly reduced growth performance indices and body crude lipid contents. Anemic, leukopenic, lymphocytopenic, heterocytopenic, esonipenic, hypoproteinemic and hypoalbuminic conditions were apparent. Moreover, depleted immune and antioxidant indicators including lysozyme activity, nitric oxide, immunoglobulin M, complement 3, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity were recorded. Also, MEL reduced the disease resistance of O. niloticus to bacterial infection. Furthermore, MEL induced downregulation of mRNA levels of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α in the spleen together with obvious pathological perturbations in both spleen and head kidneys. The CUR addition resulted in a significant enhancement in most indices. These results may conclude that MEL could alter both innate and adaptive immune responses via the negative transcriptional effect on immune-related genes together with the oxidative damage of the immune organs. Furthermore, CUR dietary supplements could be advantageous for mitigating MEL negative impacts, thus offering a favorable aquafeed additive for O. niloticus.

Graphical abstract

Glossaire technique

Etat de développement d'un être vivant caractérisant la période de fin de...
Manifestation pathologique due à l'action des microbes.