Aquatic Toxicology

Nitroaromatic compounds damage the DNA of zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio)

Publication date: December 2019

Source: Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 217

Author(s): Daniel Koske, Nadine I. Goldenstein, Ulrike Kammann

Abstract

Lethal and sublethal effects of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its degradation products 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) to zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were investigated in a 120 h exposure scenario. Lethal concentrations (LC50) were 4.5 mg/l for TNT, 13.4 mg/l for 2-ADNT and 14.4 mg/l for 4-ADNT. Embryos exposed to 2-ADNT or 4-ADNT revealed a high proportion of chorda deformations among the surviving individuals. Genotoxicity of the nitroaromatic compounds in zebrafish embryos was investigated by comet assay isolating cells from whole embryos after 48 h in vivo exposure. Significant genotoxicity was induced by all three compounds tested, in comparison to the corresponding controls at 0.1 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l as lowest tested concentrations. The genotoxicity caused by TNT was about three to four times higher than that of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the genotoxicity of TNT in fish embryos by in vivo exposure. The results are discussed in the context of dumped munition in the marine environment.

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