Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019
Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Author(s): Bo Wang, Han-jie Gu, Hui-qin Huang, Hong-yu Wang, Zhi-hui Xia, Yong-hua HuAbstract
Histone proteins are not only structurally important for chromosomal DNA packaging but also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the immune response of host against pathogens. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) as one of the most important marine flatfish, suffered from widespread outbreaks of diseases, and its immunological functioning remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we reported the expression patterns of four histones (H1, H2A, H3, and H3.3) and functional characterization of the histone H3.3 from flounder. Quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that expression of the four histones occurred in multiple tissues, but their levels of expression were relatively high in immune organs, and inducible in response to pathogens infection. Infection with extracellular and intracellular bacterial pathogens and viral pathogen regulated the expression of histones in a manner that depended on tissue type, pathogen, and infection stage. Specifically, H1 expression was highly induced by intracellular viral pathogens; H2AX and H3 expressions were highly induced by intracellular bacterial pathogen; dissimilarly, H3.3 expression was slightly induced by extracellular bacterial pathogen, but was inhibited by intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens. To further investigate H3.3 function, recombinant H3.3 (rH3.3) was obtained, and in vitro experiments showed rH3.3 possessed the capability of binding to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and inhibiting the growth of some target bacteria. Consistently, In vivo results showed that overexpression of H3.3 promoted the host defense against invading pathogenic microorganism and regulated the expressions of several cytokines. These results suggested that flounder histones exhibit different expression patterns in response to the infection of different microbial pathogens, and H3.3 serves as an immune-related protein and plays an important role in antimicrobial immunity of Japanese flounder. Taken together, this study is the first report about the expression profile of different histones upon different kind of pathogens and anti-infectious immunity of H3.3 in teleost, which offered new insights into the immunological function of histones in teleost.