Fish & Shellfish Immunology

Effects of dietary chitosan and nano-chitosan loaded clinoptilolite on growth and immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020

Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology

Author(s): Ali Khani Oushani, Mehdi Soltani, Najmeh Sheikhzadeh, Mehdi Shamsaie Mehrgan, Houman Rajabi Islami


In this study, rainbow trout (Onchorhynchys mykiss) weighing 27.75 ± 0.34 g were orally subjected to eight experimental diets each in three replicates containing varying amounts of chitosan and nano-chitosan (0.05, 0.5 and 5 g kg−1) loaded in clinoptilolite (14.28 g kg−1) for 70 days; and the growth and immune responses were evaluated. Results showed that growth parameters in fish fed diets chit + clin2, chit + clin3, nchit + clin1, nchit + clin2 and nchit + clin3 were significantly higher than in fish fed the control diet. All feeds, except chit + clin3, and nchit + clin3, significantly increased the total protein level. Feeds containing chit + clin2, nchit + clin1, and nchit + clin2 significantly elevated serum lysozyme activity compared with the control group. All treatments, except chit + clin3, and nchit + clin3 exhibited higher serum immunoglobulin (Ig) level than control one. In contrast, diet nchit + clin1 significantly unregulated the expression of Ig M gene in fish head-kidney compared to other groups. Additionally, all feeds, except clinoptilolite, and nchit + clin3, significantly improved the serum complement activity. Diets chit + clin2, nchit + clin1, and nchit + clin2 also significantly elevated antibacterial activity against Yersinia ruckeri compared with the control diet. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene in fish fed diets clinoptilolite, chit + clin1, chit + clin3, nchit + clin1, nchit + clin2, and nchit + clin3 was significantly higher than the control diet. All diets, except clinoptilolite, increased IL-1β gene expression compared to the control group. Present results suggest that diets supplemented with nchit + clin, especially at 0.05 g kg−1 nano-chitosan inclusion, could improve growth performance and immune parameters of rainbow trout.